South american people dating from 1100 ad
Although it is clear that both avenues were used, it is not certain which was more important in the peopling of the Americas.
Most traces of this episode in human prehistory have been erased by millennia of geological processes: the Pacific has inundated or washed away most of the coastal migration route, and glacial meltwash has destroyed or deeply buried traces of the inland journey..
In 1328, though, it turned out that all this traveling could also spread disease.
Although the artifacts recovered from many Paleo-Indian sites are predominantly, or even solely, stone tools, it is likely that these groups also made a wide variety of goods from perishable materials that have since disintegrated; certainly, stone tools alone would have proved inadequate to the challenges these peoples encountered.
Many pre-Columbian civilizations established permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, and complex societal hierarchies.